Jun 23, 2018

Hundreds of Economists Say: Raise the Minimum Wage

Published Oct 12, 2006, 12:00pm

Hard work deserves fair pay



Hundreds of Economists Say: Raise the Minimum Wage

The minimum wage has been an important part of our nation's economy for 68 years. It is based on the principle of valuing work by establishing an hourly wage floor beneath which employers cannot pay their workers. In so doing, the minimum wage helps to equalize the imbalance in bargaining power that low-wage workers face in the labor market. The minimum wage is also an important tool in fighting poverty.

The value of the 1997 increase in the federal minimum wage has been fully eroded. The real value of today's federal minimum wage is less than it has been since 1951. Moreover, the ratio of the minimum wage to the average hourly wage of non-supervisory workers is 31%, its lowest level since World War II. This decline is causing hardship for low-wage workers and their families. We believe that a modest increase in the minimum wage would improve the well-being of low-wage workers and would not have the adverse effects that critics have claimed. In particular, we share the view the Council of Economic Advisors expressed in the 1999 Economic Report of the President that "the weight of the evidence suggests that modest increases in the minimum wage have had very little or no effect on employment." While controversy about the precise employment effects of the minimum wage continues, research has shown that most of the beneficiaries are adults, most are female, and the vast majority are members of low-income working families.

As economists who are concerned about the problems facing low-wage workers, we believe the Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2005's proposed phased-in increase in the federal minimum wage to $7.25 falls well within the range of options where the benefits to the labor market, workers, and the overall economy would be positive.

Twenty-two states and the District of Columbia have set their minimum wages above the federal level. Arizona, Colorado, Missouri, Montana, Nevada and Ohio, are considering similar measures. As with a federal increase, modest increases in state minimum wages in the range of $1.00 to $2.50 and indexing to protect against inflation can significantly improve the lives of low-income workers and their families, without the adverse effects that critics have claimed.

Leading economists endorse this statement

Henry Aaron The Brookings Institution
Lawrence Katz Harvard University (AEA Executive Committee)
Kenneth Arrow*+ Stanford University
Lawrence Klein*+ University of Pennsylvania
William Baumol+ Princeton University and New York University
Frank Levy Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Rebecca Blank University of Michigan
Lawrence Mishel Economic Policy Institute
Alan Blinder Princeton University
Alice Rivlin+ The Brookings Institution (former Vice Chair of the
Peter Diamond+ Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Federal Reserve and Director of the Office of Management and Budget)
Ronald Ehrenberg, Cornell University
Robert Solow*+ Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Clive Granger* University of California, San Diego
Joseph Stiglitz* Columbia University

* Nobel Laureate + Past president, American Economics Association
Affiliations are for identification only and should not be construed as official endorsement by the listed institutions.
650 of their fellow economists agree

For more information, visit epi.org/minwage or contact the Economic Policy Institute at 202/775-8810.

Economists Supporting Increase in Minimum Wage

* Katherine G. Abraham University of Maryland * Frank Ackerman Tufts University * F. Gerard Adams Northeastern University * Randy Albelda University of Massachusetts - Boston * James Albrecht Georgetown University * Jennifer Alix-Garcia University of Montana * Sylvia A. Allegretto Economic Policy Institute * Beth Almeida International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers * Abbas Alnasrawi University of Vermont * Gar Alperovitz University of Maryland - College Park * Joseph Altonji Yale University * Nurul Aman University of Massachusetts - Boston * Teresa L. Amott Hobart and William Smith Colleges * Alice Amsden Massachusetts Institute of Technology * Bernard E. Anderson University of Pennsylvania * Robert M. Anderson University of California - Berkeley * Bahreinian Aniss California State University - Sacramento * Kate Antonovics University of California - San Diego * Eileen Appelbaum Rutgers University * David D. Arsen Michigan State University * Michael Ash University of Massachusetts - Amherst * Glen Atkinson University of Nevada - Reno * Rose-Marie Avin University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire * M.V. Lee Badgett University of Massachusetts - Amherst * Aniss Bahreinian Sacramento City College * Ron Baiman Loyola University Chicago * Asatar Bair City College of San Francisco * Katie Baird University of Washington - Tacoma * Dean Baker Center for Economic and Policy Research * Radhika Balakrishnan Marymount Manhattan College * Stephen E. Baldwin KRA Corporation * Erol Balkan Hamilton College * Jennifer Ball Washburn University * Brad Barham University of Wisconsin - Madison * Drucilla K. Barker Hollins College * David Barkin Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana * James N. Baron Yale University * Chuck Barone Dickinson College * Christopher B. Barrett Cornell University * Richard Barrett University of Montana * Laurie J. Bassi McBassi & Company * Francis M. Bator Harvard University * Rosemary Batt Cornell University * Sandy Baum Skidmore College * Amanda Bayer Swarthmore College * Sohrab Behdad Denison University * Peter F. Bell State University of New York - Purchase * Dale L. Belman Michigan State University * Michael Belzer Wayne State University * Lourdes Beneria Cornell University * Barbara R. Bergmann American University and University of Maryland * Eli Berman University of California - San Diego * Alexandra Bernasek Colorado State University * Jared Bernstein Economic Policy Institute * Michael Bernstein University of California - San Diego * Charles L. Betsey Howard University * David M. Betson University of Notre Dame * Carole Biewener Simmons College * Sherrilyn Billger Illinois State University * Richard E. Bilsborrow University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill * Cyrus Bina University of Minnesota - Morris * Melissa Binder University of New Mexico * L. Josh Bivens Economic Policy Institute * Stanley Black University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill * Ron Blackwell AFL - CIO * Margaret Blair Vanderbilt University Law School * Gail Blattenberger University of Utah * Robert A. Blecker American University * Barry Bluestone Northeastern University * Peter Bohmer Evergreen State College * David Boldt State University of West Georgia * Roger E. Bolton Williams College * James F. Booker Siena College * Jeff Bookwalter University of Montana * Barry Bosworth The Brookings Institution * Heather Boushey Center for Economic and Policy Research * Roger Even Bove West Chester University * Samuel Bowles Santa Fe Institute * James K. Boyce University of Massachusetts - Amherst * Ralph Bradburd Williams College * Michael E. Bradley University of Maryland - Baltimore County * Elissa Braunstein Colorado State University * David Breneman University of Virginia * Mark Brenner Labor Notes Magazine * Vernon M. Briggs Cornell University * Byron W. Brown Michigan State University * Christopher Brown Arkansas State University * Clair Brown University of California - Berkeley * Philip H. Brown Colby College * Michael Brun Illinois State University * Neil H. Buchanan Rutgers School of Law and New York University School of Law * Robert Buchele Smith College * Stephen Buckles Vanderbilt University * Stephen V. Burks University Of Minnesota - Morris * Joyce Burnette Wabash College * Paul D. Bush California State University - Fresno * Alison Butler Wilamette University * Antonio G. Callari Franklin and Marshall College * Al Campbell University of Utah * James Campen University of Massachusetts - Boston * Maria Cancian University of Wisconsin - Madison * Paul Cantor Norwalk Community College * Anthony Carnevale National Center on Education and the Economy * Jeffrey P. Carpenter Middlebury College * Francoise Carre University of Massachusetts - Boston * Michael J. Carter University of Massachusetts - Lowell * Susan B. Carter University of California - Riverside * Karl E. Case Wellesley College * J. Dennis Chasse State University of New York - Brockport * Howard Chernick Hunter College, City University of New York * Robert Cherry Brooklyn College - City University of New York * Graciela Chichilnisky Columbia University * Lawrence Chimerine Radnor International Consulting, Inc. * Menzie D. Chinn University of Wisconsin - Madison * Charles R. Chittle Bowling Green State University * Kimberly Christensen State University of New York - Purchase * Richard D. Coe New College of Florida * Robert M. Coen Northwestern University * Steve Cohn Knox College * Rachel Connelly Bowdoin College * Karen Smith Conway University of New Hampshire * Patrick Conway University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill * David R. Cormier West Virginia University * James V. Cornehls University of Texas - Arlington * Richard R. Cornwall Middlebury College * Paul N. Courant University of Michigan - Ann Arbor * James R. Crotty University of Massachusetts - Amherst * James M. Cypher California State University - Fresno * Douglas Dalenberg University of Montana * Herman E. Daly University of Maryland * Anita Dancs National Priorities Project * Nasser Daneshvary University of Nevada - Las Vegas * David Danning University of Massachusetts - Boston * Sheldon Danziger University of Michigan - Ann Arbor * Jane D'Arista Financial Markets Center * Paul Davidson The New School for Social Research * Jayne Dean Wagner College * Gregory E. DeFreitas Hofstra University * Bradford DeLong University of California - Berkeley * James G. Devine Loyola Marymount College * Ranjit S. Dighe State University of New York - Oswego * John DiNardo University of Michigan - Ann Arbor * Randall Dodd Financial Policy Forum * Peter B. Doeringer Boston University * Peter Dorman Evergreen State College * Robert Drago Pennsylvania State University * Laura Dresser University of Wisconsin * Richard B. Du Boff Bryn Mawr College * Arindrajit Dube University of California - Berkeley * Marie Duggan Keene State College * Lloyd J. Dumas University of Texas - Dallas * Christopher Dunn Earth and Its People Foundation * Steven N. Durlauf University of Wisconsin - Madison * Amitava K. Dutt University of Notre Dame * Jan Dutta Rutgers University * Gary A. Dymski University of California - Riverside * Peter J. Eaton University of Missouri - Kansas City * Fritz Efaw University of Tennessee - Chattanooga * Catherine S. Elliott New College of Florida * Richard W. England University of New Hampshire * Ernie Englander George Washington University * Gerald Epstein University of Massachusetts - Amherst * Sharon J. Erenburg Eastern Michigan University * Susan L. Ettner University of California - Los Angeles * Linda Ewing United Auto Workers * Colleen A. Fahy Assumption College * Loretta Fairchild Nebraska Wesleyan University * David Fairris University of California - Riverside * Warren E. Farb International Capital Mobility Domestic Investment * Martin Farnham University of Victoria * Jeff Faux Economic Policy Institute * Sasan Fayazmanesh California State University - Fresno * Rashi Fein Harvard Medical School * Robert M. Feinberg American University * Susan F. Feiner University of Southern Maine * Marshall Feldman University of Rhode Island * Marianne A. Ferber University of Illinois - Urbana - Champaign * William D. Ferguson Grinnell College * Rudy Fichtenbaum Wright State University * Deborah M. Figart Richard Stockton College * Bart D. Finzel University of Minnesota - Morris * Lydia Fischer United Auto Workers, retired * Peter Fisher University of Iowa * John Fitzgerald Bowdoin College * Sean Flaherty Franklin and Marshall College * Kenneth Flamm University of Texas - Austin * Maria S. Floro American University * Nancy Folbre University of Massachusetts - Amherst * Christina M. Fong Carnegie Mellon University * Catherine Forman Quinnipiac University * Harold A. Forman United Food and Commercial Workers * Mathew Forstater University of Missouri - Kansas City * Liana Fox Economic Policy Institute * Donald G. Freeman Sam Houston State University * Gerald Friedman University of Massachusetts - Amherst * Sheldon Friedman AFL - CIO * Alan Frishman Hobart and William Smith Colleges * Scott T. Fullwiler Wartburg College * Kevin Furey Chemeketa Community College * Jason Furman New York University * David Gabel Queens College * James K. Galbraith University of Texas - Austin * Monica Galizzi University of Massachusetts - Lowell * David E. Gallo California State University - Chico * Byron Gangnes University of Hawaii - Manoa * Irwin Garfinkel Columbia University * Rob Garnett Texas Christian University * Garance Genicot Georgetown University * Christophre Georges Hamilton College * Malcolm Getz Vanderbilt University * Teresa Ghilarducci University of Notre Dame * Karen J. Gibson Portland State University * Richard J. Gilbert University of California - Berkeley * Helen Lachs Ginsburg Brooklyn College - City University of New York * Herbert Gintis University of Massachusetts - Amherst * Neil Gladstein International Association of Machinists and Aerospace Workers * Amy Glasmeier Penn State University * Norman J. Glickman Rutgers University * Robert Glover University of Texas - Austin * Arthur S. Goldberger University of Wisconsin - Madison * Lonnie Golden Penn State University - Abington College * Dan Goldhaber University of Washington * Marshall I. Goldman Wellesley College * Steven M. Goldman University of California - Berkeley * William W. Goldsmith Cornell University * Donald Goldstein Allegheny College * Nance Goldstein University of Southern Maine * Nick Gomersall Luther College * Eban S. Goodstein Lewis and Clark College * Neva Goodwin Tufts University * Roger Gordon University of California - San Diego * Peter Gottschalk Boston College * Elise Gould Economic Policy Institute * Harvey Gram Queens College, City University of New York * Jim Grant Lewis & Clark College * Ulla Grapard Colgate University * Daphne Greenwood University of Colorado - Colorado Springs * Karl Gregory Oakland University * Christopher Gunn Hobart and William Smith Colleges * Steven C. Hackett Humboldt State University * Joseph E. Harrington Johns Hopkins University * Douglas N. Harris Florida State University * Jonathan M. Harris Tufts University * Martin Hart-Landsberg Lewis & Clark College * Robert Haveman University of Wisconsin - Madison * Sue Headlee American University * Carol E. Heim University of Massachusetts - Amherst * James Heintz University of Massachusetts - Amherst * Paul A. Heise Lebanon Valley College * Susan Helper Case Western Reserve University * John F. Henry University of Missouri - Kansas City * Barry Herman The New School * Edward S. Herman University of Pennsylvania * Guillermo E. Herrera Bowdoin College * Joni Hersch Vanderbilt University Law School * Thomas Hertel Purdue University * Steven Herzenberg Keystone Research Center * Donald D. Hester University of Wisconsin - Madison * Gillian Hewitson Franklin and Marshall College * Bert G. Hickman Stanford University * Marianne T. Hill Center for Policy Research and Planning * Martha S. Hill University of Michigan - Ann Arbor * Michael G. Hillard University of Southern Maine * Rod Hissong University of Texas - Arlington * P. Sai-Wing Ho University of Denver * Emily P. Hoffman Western Michigan University * Harry J. Holzer Georgetown University and Urban Institute * Marjorie Honig Hunter College, City University of New York * Barbara E. Hopkins Wright State University * Mark R. Hopkins Gettysburg College * Ann Horowitz University of Florida * Ismael Hossein-Zadeh Drake University * Charles W. Howe University of Colorado - Boulder * Candace Howes Connecticut College * Frank M. Howland Wabash College * David C. Huffman Bridgewater College * Saul H. Hymans University of Michigan - Ann Arbor * Frederick S. Inaba Washington State University * Alan G. Isaac American University * Doreen Isenberg University of Redlands * Jonathan Isham Middlebury College * Sanford M. Jacoby University of California - Los Angeles * Robert G. James California State University - Chico * Kenneth P. Jameson University of Utah * Russell A. Janis University of Massachusetts - Amherst * Elizabeth J. Jensen Hamilton College * Pascale Joassart University of Massachusetts - Boston * Jerome Joffe St. John's University * Laurie Johnson University of Denver * William Johnson Arizona State University * Lawrence D. Jones University of British Columbia * Alexander J. Julius New York University * Bernard Jump Syracuse University * Fadhel Kaboub Drew University * Shulamit Kahn Boston University * Linda Kamas Santa Clara University * Sheila B. Kamerman Columbia University * John Kane State University of New York - Oswego * Billie Kanter California State University - Chico * J.K. Kapler University of Massachusetts - Boston * Roger T. Kaufman Smith College * David E. Kaun University of California - Santa Cruz * Thomas A. Kemp University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire * Peter B. Kenen Princeton University * Farida C. Khan University of Wisconsin - Parkside * Kwan S. Kim University of Notre Dame * Marlene Kim University of Massachusetts - Boston * Christopher T. King University of Texas - Austin * Mary C. King Portland State University * Lori G. Kletzer University of California - Santa Cruz * Janet T. Knoedler Bucknell University * Tim Koechlin Vassar College * Andrew I. Kohen James Madison University * Denise Eby Konan University of Hawaii - Manoa * Ebru Kongar Dickinson College * James Konow Loyola Marymount University * Krishna Kool University of Rio Grande * Douglas Koritz Buffalo State College * Daniel J. Kovenock Purdue University * Kate Krause University of New Mexico * Vadaken N. Krishnan Bowling Green State University * Douglas Kruse Rutgers University * David Laibman Brooklyn College - City University of New York * Robert M. La- Jeunesse University of Newcastle * Kevin Lang Boston University * Catherine Langlois Georgetown University * Mehrene Larudee DePaul University * Gary A. Latanich Arkansas State University * Robert Z. Lawrence Harvard University - Kennedy School of Government * Daniel Lawson Drew University * William Lazonick University of Massachusetts - Lowell * Joelle J. Leclaire Buffalo State College * Frederic S. Lee University of Missouri - Kansas City * Marvin Lee San Jose State University * Sang-Hyop Lee University of Hawaii - Manoa * Woojin Lee University of Massachusetts - Amherst * Thomas D. Legg University of Minnesota * J. Paul Leigh University of California - Davis * Charles Levenstein University of Massachusetts - Lowell * Margaret C. Levenstein University of Michigan - Ann Arbor * Henry M. Levin Columbia University * Herbert S. Levine University of Pennsylvania * Mark Levinson Economic Policy Institute * Oren M. Levin-Waldman Metropolitan College of New York * Mark K. Levitan Community Service Society of New York * Stephen Levy Center for Continuing Study of California Economy * Arthur Lewbel Boston College * Lynne Y. Lewis Bates College * David L. Lindauer Wellesley College * Victor D. Lippit University of California - Riverside * Pamela J. Loprest Urban Institute * Richard Lotspeich Indiana State University * Michael C. Lovell Wesleyan University * Milton Lower Retired Senior Economist, US House of Representatives * Stephanie Luce University of Massachusetts - Amherst * Robert Lucore United American Nurses * Jens Otto Ludwig Georgetown University * Dan Luria Michigan Manufacturing Technology Center * Devon Lynch University of Denver * Lisa M. Lynch Tufts University * Robert G. Lynch Washington College * Catherine Lynde University of Massachusetts - Boston * Arthur MacEwan University of Massachusetts - Boston * Hasan MacNeil California State University - Chico * Allan MacNeill Webster University * Craig R. MacPhee University of Nebraska - Lincoln * Diane J. Macunovich University of Redlands * Janice F. Madden University of Pennsylvania * Mark H. Maier Glendale Community College * Thomas N. Maloney University of Utah * Jay R. Mandle Colgate University * Andrea Maneschi Vanderbilt University * Garth Mangum University of Utah * Catherine L. Mann Brandeis University * Don Mar San Francisco State University * Dave E. Marcotte University of Maryland - Baltimore County * Robert A. Margo Boston University * Ann R. Markusen University of Minnesota - Twin Cities Ray Marshall University of Texas LBJ School of Public Affairs * Stephen Martin Purdue University * Patrick L. Mason Florida State University * Thomas Masterson Westfield State College * Julie A. Matthaei Wellesley College * Peter Hans Matthews Middlebury College * Anne Mayhew University of Tennessee - Knoxville * Alan K. McAdams Cornell University * Timothy D. McBride St. Louis University School of Public Health * Elaine McCrate University of Vermont * Kate McGovern Springfield College * Richard D. McGrath Armstrong Atlantic State University * Richard McIntyre University of Rhode Island * Hannah McKinney Kalamazoo College * Judith Record McKinney Hobart and William Smith Colleges * Andrew McLennan University of Sydney * Charles W. McMillion MBG Information Services * Ellen Meara Harvard Medical School * Martin Melkonian Hofstra University * Jo Beth Mertens Hobart and William Smith Colleges * Peter B. Meyer University of Louisville and Northern Kentucky University * Thomas R. Michl Colgate University * Edward Miguel University of California - Berkeley * William Milberg The New School * John A. Miller Wheaton College * S.M. Miller Cambridge Institute and Boston University * Jerry Miner Syracuse University * Daniel J.B. Mitchel University of California - Los Angeles * Edward B. Montgomery University of Maryland * Sarah Montgomery Mount Holyoke College * Robert E. Moore Georgia State University * Barbara A. Morgan Johns Hopkins University * John R. Morris University of Colorado - Denver * Monique Morrissey Economic Policy Institute * Lawrence B. Morse North Carolina A&T State University * Saeed Mortazavi Humboldt State University * Fred Moseley Mount Holyoke College * Philip I. Moss University of Massachusetts - Lowell * Tracy Mott University of Denver * Steven D. Mullins Drury University * Alicia H. Munnell Boston College * Richard J. Murnane Harvard University * Matthew D. Murphy Gainesville State College * Michael Murray Bates College * Peggy B. Musgrave University of California - Santa Cruz * Richard A. Musgrave Harvard University * Ellen Mutari Richard Stockton College * Sirisha Naidu Wright State University * Michele Naples The College of New Jersey * Tara Natarajan St. Michael's College * Julie A. Nelson Tufts University * Reynold F. Nesiba Augustana College * Donald A. Nichols University of Wisconsin - Madison * Eric Nilsson California State University - San Bernardino * Laurie Nisonoff Hampshire College * Emily Northrop Southwestern University * Bruce Norton San Antonio College * Stephen A. O'Connell Swarthmore College * Mehmet Odekon Skidmore College * Paulette Olson Wright State University * Paul Ong University of California - Los Angeles * Van Doorn Ooms Committee for Economic Development * Jonathan M. Orszag Competition Policy Associates, Inc. * Paul Osterman Massachusetts Institute of Technology * Shaianne T. Osterreich Ithaca College * Rudolph A. Oswald George Meany Labor Studies Center * Spencer J. Pack Connecticut College * Arnold Packer Johns Hopkins University * Dimitri B. Papadimitriou The Levy Economic Institute of Bard College * James A. Parrott Fiscal Policy Institute * Manuel Pastor University of California - Santa Cruz * Eva A. Paus Mount Holyoke College * Jim Peach New Mexico State University * M. Stephen Pendleton Buffalo State College * Michael Perelman California State University - Chico * Kenneth Peres Communications Workers of America * George L. Perry The Brookings Institution * Joseph Persky University of Illinois - Chicago * Karen A. Pfeifer Smith College * Bruce Pietrykowski University of Michigan - Dearborn * Michael J. Piore Massachusetts Institute of Technology * Karen R. Polenske Massachusetts Institute of Technology * Robert Pollin University of Massachusetts - Amherst * Marshall Pomer Macroeconomic Policy Institute * Tod Porter Youngstown State University * Shirley L. Porterfield University of Missouri - St. Louis * Michael J. Potepan San Francisco State University * Marilyn Power Sarah Lawrence College * Thomas Power University of Montana * Robert E. Prasch Middlebury College * Mark A. Price Keystone Research Center * Jean L. Pyle University of Massachusetts - Lowell * Paddy Quick St. Francis College * John M. Quigley University of California - Berkeley * Willard W. Radell, Jr. Indiana University of Pennsylvania * Fredric Raines Washington University in St. Louis * Steven Raphael University of California - Berkeley * Salim Rashid University of Illinois - Urbana - Champaign * Wendy L. Rayack Wesleyan University * Randall Reback Barnard College, Columbia University * Robert Rebelein Vassar College * James B. Rebitzer Case Western Reserve University * Daniel I. Rees University of Colorado - Denver * Michael Reich University of California - Berkeley * Robert B. Reich University of California - Berkeley * Cordelia Reimers Hunter College and The Graduate Center - City University of New York * Donald Renner Minnesota State University - Mankato * Trudi Renwick Fiscal Policy Institute * Andrew Reschovsky University of Wisconsin - Madison * Lee A. Reynis University of New Mexico * Daniel Richards Tufts University * Bruce Roberts University of Southern Maine * Barbara J. Robles Arizona State University * John Roche St. John Fisher College * Charles P. Rock Rollins College * William M. Rodgers III Rutgers University * Dani Rodrik Harvard University * John E. Roemer Yale University * William O. Rohlf Drury University * Gerard Roland University of California - Berkeley * Frank Roosevelt Sarah Lawrence College * Jaime Ros University of Notre Dame * Nancy E. Rose California State University - San Bernardino * Howard F. Rosen Trade Adjustment Assistance Coalition * Joshua L. Rosenbloom University of Kansas * William W. Ross Fu Associates, Ltd. * Roy J. Rotheim Skidmore College * Jesse Rothstein Princeton University * Geoffrey Rothwell Stanford University * Joydeep Roy Economic Policy Institute * David Runsten Community Alliance with Family Farmers * Lynda Rush California State Polytechnic University - Pomona * Gregory M. Saltzman Albion College and the University of Michigan * Sydney Saltzman Cornell University * Dominick Salvatore Fordham University * Blair Sandler San Francisco, California * Daniel E. Saros Valparaiso University * Michael Sattinger University at Albany * Dawn Saunders Castleton State College * Larry Sawers American University * Max Sawicky Economic Policy Institute * Peter V. Schaeffer West Virginia University * William C. Schaniel University of West Georgia * A. Allan Schmid Michigan State University * Stephen J. Schmidt Union College * John Schmitt Center for Economic and Policy Research * Juliet B. Schor Boston College * C. Heike Schotten University of Massachusetts - Boston * Eric A. Schutz Rollins College * Elliot Sclar Columbia University * Allen J. Scott University of California - Los Angeles * Bruce R. Scott Harvard Business School * Robert Scott Economic Policy Institute * Stephanie Seguino University of Vermont * Laurence Seidman University of Delaware * Janet Seiz Grinnell College * Willi Semmler The New School * Mina Zeynep Senses Johns Hopkins University * Jean Shackelford Bucknell University * Harry G. Shaffer University of Kansas * Sumitra Shah St. John's University * Robert J. Shapiro Sonecon LLC * Mohammed Sharif University of Rhode Island * Lois B. Shaw Institute for Women's Policy Research * Heidi Shierholz University of Toronto * Deep Shikha College of St. Catherine * Richard L. Shirey Siena College * Steven Shulman Colorado State University * Laurence Shute California State Polytechnic University - Pomona * Stephen J. Silvia American University * Michael E. Simmons North Carolina A&T State University * Margaret C. Simms Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies * Chris Skelley Rollins College * Max J. Skidmore University of Missouri - Kansas City * Peter Skott University of Massachusetts - Amherst * Courtenay M. Slater Arlington, Virginia * Timothy M. Smeeding Syracuse University * Janet Spitz College of Saint Rose * William Spriggs Howard University * James L. Starkey University of Rhode Island * Martha A. Starr American University * Howard Stein University of Michigan - Ann Arbor * Mary Huff Stevenson University of Massachusetts - Boston * James B. Stewart Pennsylvania State University * Jeffrey Stewart Northern Kentucky University * Robert J. Stonebraker Winthrop University * Michael Storper University of California - Los Angeles * Diana Strassmann Rice University * Cornelia J. Strawser Consultant * Frederick R. Strobel New College of Florida * James I. Sturgeon University of Missouri - Kansas City * David M. Sturges Colgate University * William A. Sundstrom Santa Clara University * Jonathan Sunshine Reston, Virginia * Paul Swaim Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development * Craig Swan University of Minnesota - Twin Cities * Paul A. Swanson William Paterson University * William K. Tabb Queens College * Peter Temin Massachusetts Institute of Technology * Judith Tendler Massachusetts Instittue of Technology * David Terkla University of Massachusetts - Boston * Kenneth Thomas University of Missouri - St. Louis * Frank Thompson University of Michigan - Ann Arbor * Ross D. Thomson University of Vermont * Emanuel D. Thorne Brooklyn College - City University of New York * Jill Tiefenthaler Colgate University * Thomas H. Tietenberg Colby College * Chris Tilly University of Massachusetts - Lowell * Renee Toback Empire State College * Mayo C. Toruno California State University - San Bernardino * W. Scott Trees Siena College * A. Dale Tussing Syracuse University * James Tybout Penn State University * Christopher Udry Yale University * Daniel A. Underwood Peninsula College * Lynn Unruh University of Central Florida * Leanne Ussher Queens College, City University of New York * David Vail Bowdoin College * Vivian Grace Valdmanis University of the Sciences in Philadelphia * William Van Lear Belmont Abbey College * Lane Vanderslice Hunger Notes * Lise Vesterlund University of Pittsburgh * Michael G. Vogt Eastern Michigan University * Paula B. Voos Rutgers University * Mark Votruba Case Western Reserve University * Susan Vroman Georgetown University * Howard M. Wachtel American University * Jeffrey Waddoups University of Nevada - Las Vegas * Norman Waitzman University of Utah * Lawrence A. Waldman University of New Mexico * John F. Walker Portland State University * William Waller Hobart and William Smith Colleges * Jennifer Warlick University of Notre Dame * Matthew Warning University of Puget Sound * Bernard Wasow The Century Foundation * Robert W. Wassmer California State University - Sacramento * Sidney Weintraub Center for Strategic and International Studies * Mark Weisbrot Center for Economic and Policy Research * Charles L. Weise Gettysburg College * Thomas E. Weisskopf University of Michigan - Ann Arbor * Christian E. Weller Center for American Progress * Fred M. Westfield Vanderbilt University * Charles J. Whalen Perspectives on Work * Cathleen L. Whiting Williamette University * Howard Wial The Brookings Institution * Linda Wilcox Young Southern Oregon University * Arthur R. Williams Rochester - Minnesota * Robert G. Williams Guilford College * John Willoughby American University * Valerie Rawlston Wilson National Urban League * Jon D. Wisman American University * Barbara L. Wolfe University of Wisconsin - Madison * Edward Wolff New York University * Martin Wolfson University of Notre Dame * Brenda Wyss Wheaton College * Yavuz Yasar University of Denver * Anne Yeagle University of Utah * Erinc Yelden University of Massachusetts - Amherst * Ben E. Young University of Missouri - Kansas City * Edward G. Young University of Wisconsin - Eau Claire * June Zaccone National Jobs for All Coalition and Hofstra University * Ajit Zacharias Levy Economics Institute of Bard College * David A. Zalewski Providence College * Henry W. Zaretsky Henry W. Zaretsky & Associates, Inc. * Jim Zelenski Regis University * Andrew Zimbalist Smith College * John Zysman University of California - Berkeley

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